Carbohydrates: Low Carb Meals and High Carb Meals

Carbohydrates: Low Carb Meals and High Carb Meals: we are going to discuss carbohydrates in detail.

As we know there are basically six essential components of balanced diet. These are:

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Fats
  3. Protein
  4. Vitamins
  5. Minerals and
  6. Water

One of the primary energy or fuel providing components of human body. Basically, carbohydrates are also known as saccharides. They are usually polymers of many saccharide units. Carbohydrates are formed by process called “Photosynthesis”. In this process, green plants in the presence of sunlight combine with carbon dioxide and water to form carbohydrates.

Definition of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are class of compounds which are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Therefore, Carbohydrates are defined as those compounds which are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or their derivatives or those substances which yields one of these compounds on hydrolysis.

For example: Glucose, fructose, sucrose are amongst some of the abundantly available carbohydrates.

Types of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are classified according to the number of saccharide units, their structure, possess. So, carbohydrates are classified as:

  1. Monosaccharide
  2. Glucose
  3. Fructose
  4. Galactose
  5. Disaccharide
  6. Sucrose
  7. Maltose
  8. Lactose
  9. Polysaccharide
  10. Starch
  11. Glycogen
  12. Dextrin
  13. Dietary fibre
  14. Oligosaccharide
  15. Raffinose
  16. StachYose

Monosaccharide

The monosaccharides are simplest form of carbohydrates, which cannot be further hydrolysed to smaller carbohydrates units. They are made up of 2-6 carbon units. e.g., Glucose is also called dextrose. Fructose is mainly found in fruits. So, it is a fruit sugar. Galactose is also a monosaccharide. But it does not occur freely in nature. Its only source is lactose and is obtained or hydrolysis of lactose.

Disaccharide

The disaccharides are made up of two monosaccharide units. So, on hydrolysis they release two monosaccharide units. e.g., Sucrose, maltose, lactose.

Sucrose is a table sugar, which is obtained from sugarcane. It on hydrolysis yields one of glucose and fructose.

Maltose is obtained from sprouted cereal grains or starch. It on hydrolysis yields two units of glucose.

Lactose is also known as milk sugar, as its only source is milk. It on hydrolysis yields glucose and one unit of galactose.

Polysaccharide

Polysaccharide are also known as compound sugar, as they on hydrolysis yields more eon ten molecule of monosaccharide. e.g., -Starch, glycogen, dextrin, dietary fibre.

Starch

The primary storage source of carbohydrates in plants is starch. It is contributed in our diet by cereal grain, potatoes, sweet potatoes, sago, etc. More than half of the carbohydrates, in-by humans are starch. It is ultimately hydrolysed in the body into glucose.

Glycogen

Glycogen is main food reserve in anihgmals. So, it is also called animal starch. Liver and muscles are main storage site of glycogen in animals. Usually in fasting state, this stored glycogen is converted to glucose to provide energy.

Dextrin

Dextrin is product of partial hydrolysis of starch by an acid or an enzyme. Dextrin is the main carbohydrate source in proprietary prepration used as oral supplements.

Dietary Fibre

Dietary fibre is undoubtedly one of the most abundant biomolecule in nature. It is such a carbohydrate, which is not digested in human body, as human being does not possess enzyme for its digestion. But still it plays essential role in our diets, e.g., Pectins, cellulosE hemi cellulose, lignins, gums and waxes.

Oligosaccharide

A type of carbohydrate that is made up of a finite and comparatively small number of monosaccharides linked together. Lactose, maltose and sucrose are oligosaccharides consisting of tv. simple sugars. Three simple sugars make up the oligosaccharide known as raffinose. e.g., Raffinose, stach yose.

CALORIC VALUE

Caloric value gives energy value of food. The energy value of carbohydrate is expressed in kilocalories. The quantity of thermal energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogramme of water by one degree Celsius is one kilocalorie.

1g of carbohydrate on complete oxidation yields 4 kcal of energy

Note: Dietary fibre, one of the most important constituent of carbohydrate rich food. It has cc siderable effect on available energy from food. Larger the intake of dietary fibre in diet, lesser the energy available from food. Because in human body fibre content is not digested.

RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES

Before knowing dietary allowance of carbohydrates for all individual, we must know what is recommended dietary allowances. Recommended dietary allowances is defined as average daily dietary intake level, which is sufficient to meet nutrient requirements of maximum of healthy population in particular life stage and gender group.

RDA of Carbohydrates

Lilian diets are generally high in carbohydrates and carbohydrates are chief source of allergy in our diets. There are not any specific figures for amount of carbohydrates one should consume. Normally 60% to 70% of our total calories should come from carbohydrates. e.g., RDA of energy for healthy sedentary women worker is 1875 Kcal.

Energy – 1875 Kcal

RDA for CHO (carbohydrate = 60 to 70% of 1875 Kcal — 280 g to 328 g

Jameson Carbs 0g

Low Carb Meal Plan Dietary Sources

The low carb meal plan food which give carbohydrates in our diet are:

  • All cereals like rice, wheat, bajra, jowar, ragi etc.
  • Roots and tubers: potato, tapioca, sweet potato etc.
  • Sugarcane, honey, jaggery, Sago
  • Pulses and Legumes
  • Fruits

Crabs in Jameson and in Food

Name of Food StuffCarbohydrates (% of Weight)
Sugar Concentrated Sweets
Sweets Sugar : Cane, beet, powdered, brown,
maple Candies
Honey (extracted)
Syrup : Table blends,
molasses Jams,
jellies,
marmalades Carbonated, seetended beverages
99.5  
90-96
70-95
82
55-75
70
10-12
Fruits
Prunes,apricots, figs (cooked, unsweet)
Bananas, grapes, cherries, apples, pears
Fresh: Pineapples,grapefruits,oranges, apricots, strawberries

12-31  
15-23    
8-14  
Milk
Skim
Whole  
 
6
5  
Starch Grain products
Starches: Corn, tapioca, arrowroot Cereals (dry): Corn, wheat, oat, bran
Flour: Corn, wheat (sifted)
Popcorn (popped)
Cookies: Plain, assorted Crackers, saltines
Cakes: Plain, without icing
Bread: White, rye, whole wheat Macaroni, spaghetti, noodles, rice (cooked) Creals (cooked): Oat, wheat, grits

86-88
68-85
70-80
77
71
72
48-52
10-16  
Vegetables
Boiled: Corn, white and sweet potatores, lima and dried beans, peas
Beets, carrots, onions, tomatoes
Leafy: Lettuce, asparagus, cabbage, greens, spinach  

15-26  
5-7  
3-4
Carbs in Jameson0
Truly Carbs2

Functions of Carbohydrates

Indian diets have high percentage of carbohydrates as they are comparatively cheap. But carbohydrates play very important role in human body, else than providing energy. The major functions of carbohydrates are discussed below:

1. Energy source: Carbohydrates are major source of energy. It is cheapest and most conviently available fuel for human body. One gram of carbohydrates yields 4 kcal. Among all the carbohydrates, glucose is the primary source of energy for all tissues and brain.

2. Protein sparing action: Diet containing sufficient amount of carbohydrates allow protein to perform its primary function of body building. Otherwise, if diet is deficit in carbohydrates, proteins are used for energy purpose.

3. Fat Metabolism: The complete oxidation of fat occurs in presence of carbohydrates. But diet which is restricted in carbohydrates, results in faster metabolism of fat, forming incompletely oxidized products called ketone bodies.

4. Reserve food material: Carbohydrates are stored in form of glycogen by the process called glycogensis in the presence of hormone called insulin. In case of fasting this re-served glycogen is reconverted to glucose by the process called glycogenolysis, in presence of hormone called glucagon. Our body muscles can store 150 g of glucogen, this amount can be increased fivefold with physical training. Human liver can store 90 g of glycogen.

5. Conversion of carbohydrates to fat: If carbohydrates exceed the level of storage site available in liver and muscles, then ingested carbohydrates (glucose) is converted into fat by the process called lipogenesis. It is stored in adipose tissue.

6. Structural material: Carbohydrates act as structural material for several cellular components. For example, Pentose sugar (Ribose) is component of Ribonucleic acid (RNA). Deoxyribose is component of Deoxyribonucleic acid.

7. Functioning of central nervous system: Glucose is main source of energy for proper and normal functioning of brain. Prolonged hyperglycemia can lead to irreversible damage to brain tissue.

8. Functioning of heart: For constant working heart muscle use glucose as a source of energy. But prolonged fasting may lead to damage to the heart muscles.

9. Intestinal flora: Lactose, the milk sugar promotes the growth of desirable bacteria in small intestine, these bacteria help in synthesis of B-complex vitamins. Lactose also enhances calcium absorption.

10. Dietary fibre: Fibre is one of the most important components of carbohydrate, which has no nutritive value. But it is an important component for normal bowel functioning.

DIETARY FIBRE

Dietary fibre is defined as that portion of food which is obtained from plant cells and not digestable in human beings, because of absence of fibre digesting enzymes.

Types of Dietary Fibres

1. Soluble

2. Insoluble

Soluble fibers bind with fatty acids and slow digestion so blood sugars are released more slowly into the body. These fibers help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and help regulate blood sugar levels for people with diabetes. These fibers help to pre-vent constipation and keep you regular.

Dietary fibers are found naturally in the fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains that we eat. Functional fiber, a growing trend in the food industry, is fiber that has been isolated and extracted from plants or animal sources and added to drinks and food products to boost their fiber content. Both sources offer the same health benefits.

Role of Dietary Fibre

Fibre plays very important role in maintenance of health. Its role and function are enlists below:

1. Dietary fibre add bulk to faeces and increases water holding capacity. This leads to increase in gastric motility. So, prevent diseases like constipation, diverticulitis.

2. It has shown positive effect in prevention of cancer of large intestine, as it absorbs cancer producing hydrocarbons (lignins).

3. High fibre diet have low glycemic index. So, it does not lead to immediate rise in blood glucose level. Hence, high fibre diet forms the basis of diabetic diet.

4. High fibre diet is low in calories and also gives satiety. So, it gives feeling of fullness Hence, high fibre diet is good for weight reduction.

Recommended Dietary Allowances for Fibre

RDA for fibre is 30g/day. Refined flour and its products have nearly negligible amour – of fibre. Fish and other sea food, meat and poultry products, milk and milk products, fats sugar, etc., do not contain any fibre.

Sources of Fibre

Whole grain cereal, whole pulses, fruits and vegetables are good sources of fibre.

Digestion

Digestion is the process, in which complex carbohydrates are broken down into simpler carbohydrates. i.e. breakdown of polysaccharide into monosaccharide.

Steps Involved in Carbohydrates Digestion 

Digestion of carbohydrates start in mouth and completes in small intestine.

In Mouth

Carbohydrates digestion starts in mouth by the enzyme called a-amylase or ptyalin. Its actions continues till the food enters the stomach and get mixed with the gastric content stomach. The acidic pH of stomach inactivates the carbohydrate digesting enzymes.

Very little percentage of carbohydrates get digested in mouth, as food stays for a short in mouth.

In Stomach

Stomach receives partially digested and partially undigested food from the mouth mixed salivary enzyme. The acidic environment of stomach inactivates the action of saliary amylase and stomach contains no carbohydrate digesting enzymes. Hence, no digestion takes place in the stomach.

Intestinal Phase

The complete digestion of carbohydrates takes place in small intestine. The enzymes leads to complete digestion in small intestine are pancreatic amylase and intestinal amylase. This includes: Maltase, Isomaltose, limit dextrinase, Sucrase, Lactase.

Absorption

The carbohydrates absorption occurs in small intes-tine. Carbohydrates absorption in blood stream occurs in form of simple sugar, i.e. monosaccharide such as glucose, galactose and fructose. The simple sugar enter the portal circulation via capillaries of villi and are transported to liver.

In the liver fructose and galactose are converted to glycogen for storage. The glycogen stored gets re-converted to glucose during fasting.

Absorption of glucose is affected by amount of sodium ions in intestinal lumen. Absorption occurs either actively or passively.

Metabolism

The simple carbohydrates which reach the liver through portal circulation is now used up by in the following ways:

Energy Production

Glucose obtained as end product of carbohydrates is directly utilized by the body cells to obtain energy. The breaking down of glucose to release energy occur as follows:

  1. Glucose is broken down to release energy in several steps to two molecules of pyruvate by the set of reaction cycle called glycolysis.
  2. Pyruvate enters TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid) also known as Kreb cycle to produce energy in form of ATP. Complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose produces 36 ATP molecules, 6 molecules of CO2 and 6 molecules of H2O.
Storage Products

1. Conversion into Glycogen: Primarily glucose is used for energy production while ex-tra glucose is converted into glycogen in presence of insulin and is stored in liver and muscles. This process is called glycogensis.

2. Conversion into Fat: If glucose level exceeds beyond the storage space available in liver and muscle, than rest of glucose is stored in form of fat in adipose tissue. This process is called lipogenesis.

Maintenance of Blood Glucose Levels

Glucose which enters in our blood stream, after complete digestion of carbohydrates helps in normal functioning of all the body cells. The normal level of fasting blood glucose is between 80-110 mg/dl. While after consuming a meal containing higher percentage Cr carbohydrates, blood glucose level normally rises to 130-150 mg/dl during 1st hour. But returns to normal fasting level after 2 hours of meal. There are several hormones involves in controlling blood glucose level. Below is table summarizing the action of hormone C7 blood glucose level.

Table – Showing effect of hormones on blood glucose level

HormonesEffect on Blood Glucose  
Insulin
Glucogen
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Glucocorticoids
Thyroxine
Growth hormone  
Decreases blood glucose level
Increases blood glucose level
Raises blood glucose level
Increases blood glucose level
Raises blood glucose level
Raises blood glucose level  

MALNUTRITION OF CARBOHYDRATE

Malnutrition is such a disorder, in which diet is ill balanced i.e. it could be excess or de-ficiency of one particular nutrient or more than one nutrient.

Excessive Intake

  • Obesity
  • Dental carries
  • Digestion problem
  • Predisposition to other diseases

Deficiency Intake

  • Underweight

Excessive Intake

Excessive consumption of carbohydrates leads to following:

Obesity

Excessive intake of carbohydrates, leads to increase in weight gain. As carbohydrates consumed more than our body’s requirement is stored in the form of glycogen in liver and fat in adipose tissue. Problem of obesity also puts negative psychological impact and es us more prone to some other metabolic disorders.

Dental Carries

Sources of empty calories like sweets, chocolate, sugar, etc., provide favourable medium for bacterial growth, as they are usually sticky in nature. Hence makes children prone to dental carries.

Digestion Problems

Excessive consumption of carbohydrates may lead to several digestion problems like flatulence, diarrhoea etc.

Predisposition to other Diseases

Consumption of carbohydrates more than the body’s ability to metabolise makes the person prone to diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases etc.

Deficient Intake

The carbohydrates are the basic sources of energy in our diet. If they are deficient in o diet, it leads to following problems:

Underweight

Prolonged deficient intake of carbohydrate leads to growth retardation. Even the protein available in food is used up for energy production resulting in muscle wasting. Carbohydrates and protein deficiencies are very common in developing countries. So, we would learn in detail about them, after studying about protein, another important macronutrient.

Low Carb Meal Plan

Monday
Breakfast    
Lunch  
Dinner

Various vegetables in an omelette that has been fried in butter or coconut oil.
Yoghurt made from grass-fed cows, blueberries, and a few almonds.
No-bun cheeseburger with salsa sauce and vegetables.
Tuesday
Breakfast
Lunch  
Dinner

Eggs with bacon.
Burgers and vegetables from the previous evening.
Salmon with veggies and butter.
Wednesday
Breakfast  
Lunch
Dinner

Butter or coconut oil-fried eggs and vegetables.
Salad with shrimp and olive oil.
Chicken and veggies grilled.
Thursday
Breakfast    
Lunch  
Dinner

Various vegetables in an omelette that has been fried in butter or coconut oil.
Coconut milk, almonds, berries, and protein powder in a smoothie.
Vegetables with steak.
Friday
Breakfast
Lunch
Dinner

Eggs and bacon.
Salad of chicken with a little olive oil.
Chops of pork and veggies.
Saturday
Breakfast
Lunch    
Dinner
 
Omelette with a range of vegetables.
Yoghurt made from grass-fed cows, topped with berries, coconut flakes, and a few walnuts.
Vegetables and meatballs.
Sunday
Breakfast
Lunch    

Dinner

Eggs and bacon.
Smoothie made with coconut milk, berries, a little heavy cream, and chocolate protein powder.
Grilled chicken wings with a dish of uncooked spinach

FAQs on Carbohydrates

Do Dogs Need Carbs?

Energy production is one of the main functions of carbohydrates in a dog’s diet. Because they supply dietary fibre and energy in the form of glucose, the answer for do dogs need carbs are yes carbohydrates are essential to a dog’s daily diet. The body needs glucose, and if it cannot get it from carbohydrates, it will divert amino acids from other bodily functions.

How many truly carbs are in total?

Truly carbs are particularly including 2g carbs.

What are carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are one of the three primary macronutrients tracked down in food, alongside protein and fat. They are a sort of supplement that furnishes the body with energy.

What are the different types of carbohydrates?

There are two principal kinds of carbs: straightforward carbs and complex carbs. Straightforward starches are comprised of a couple of carbohydrates particles and are found in food sources like natural product, candy, and pop. Complex carbs are comprised of many sugar particles and are found in food varieties like entire grains, vegetables, and vegetables.

What is the role of carbohydrates in the body?

Carbs give the body energy for actual work, cerebrum capability, and other real cycles. They likewise assist with managing glucose levels, support stomach related wellbeing, and advance sensations of totality and fulfillment after dinners.

Are all carbohydrates bad for you?

Actually no, not all carbohydrates are terrible for you. It is vital to pick starches from sound sources, like entire grains, organic products, vegetables, and vegetables. These kinds of starches give significant supplements like fiber, nutrients, and minerals.

How many carbohydrates should I eat in a day?

The suggested day to day admission of carbs shifts relying upon factors like age, sex, and movement level. The Dietary Rules for Americans suggests that starches ought to make up 45-65% of all out day to day caloric admission.

Are low-carbohydrate diets healthy?

Low-carb diets can be successful for weight reduction and glucose control, yet they may not be fitting or smart for everybody. It means quite a bit to converse with a medical services supplier prior to beginning any new eating regimen or rolling out critical improvements to your eating regimen.

Are carbohydrates responsible for weight gain?

carbohydrates themselves are not liable for weight gain, however consuming such a large number of calories from any source can prompt weight gain. It is critical to pick solid wellsprings of starches and consume them with some restraint as a component of a balanced, adjusted diet.

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