7 Occupational Health and Safety Management System Principles

Occupational Health and Safety Management System Principles: Here content is mentioned below.

Occupational Safety Management

What Is Occupational Health And Safety?

Living in conformity with the natural laws governing the body, mind, and environment leads to health. These rules cover topics like clean air, sunlight, diet, exercise, rest, and relaxation as well as topics like sleep, hygiene, elimination, proper mindsets, healthy habits, and, most importantly, lifestyle. Health is not a static condition; rather, it fluctuates between different levels of peak performance and different levels of dysfunction. It is a multifaceted physical, mental, and social phenomenon that is influenced by a wide range of both medical and non-medical elements. In addition to these elements, the working environment circumstances also have an impact on employee health. The objectives of occupational health and safety management system principles are to protect employee health and to increase industrial output.

Currently, industrialization is the prevailing tendency. Occupational health and safety are a big issue as industries develop and become more complex. The national government has acknowledged the significance of safeguarding employees’ health. The field of occupational health is concerned with the wellbeing and health of workers in a variety of occupations. For the growth of the society, the individual, and the nation, health is crucial.

Meaning of Occupational Safety and Health?

Occupational health used to be referred to as “industrial hygiene” or “industrial health” and was exclusively associated with factories and mines. The modern definition of occupational health encompasses all forms of employment, service trades, commercial enterprises, forestry, and agriculture. It also covers topics like industrial hygiene, industrial diseases, industrial accidents, toxicology in relation to occupational psychology, industrial rehabilitation, and workplace safety.

Employees in all professions should have their best degree of mental, physical, and social wellbeing encouraged and maintained. Additionally, it is important to prevent worker health issues brought on by their working environments. Protection of employees from health dangers while they are at work; placement and maintenance of employees in work environments that are suitable for their physical and psychological needs; and, to put it simply, the adaptation of work to the individual and of each man to his position.

The focus of contemporary occupational health is on the individual, their living and working environments, their fears and hopes, and their perspectives on their jobs.

Occupational health is the practise of preventative medicine in all workplace environments. Oh & s and preventive medicine have similar objectives. The practise of preventative medicine in all workplace settings is known as occupational health. The highest level of physical, mental, and social wellbeing is maintained among all workers through illness prevention; preventive measures are applied at the same level through health promotion, targeted protection, early diagnosis and treatment, disability limitation, and rehabilitation. The protection of workers’ health and the provision of a secure workplace are essential for industrial production. The term “occupational environment” refers to the whole of the external factors and effects present at the workplace.

In a workplace, there are three different kinds of interactions (Occupational environment)

(a) Man, and Physical, Chemical and Biological Agents

(b) Man, and Machine

(c) Man, and Man

Physical Agents

Physical elements that can be harmful to health in the workplace include heat, cold, humidity, air movement, heat radiation, light, noise, and vibrations. The impact of these variables on the workers’ well-being and productivity varies. The quantity of working and breathing space, restroom, bathing, and washing facilities are all crucial in a workplace setting.

Chemical Agents

Chemical substances can harm skin, blood, and other body organs in addition to causing debilitating respiratory illnesses. Agents of Life. Workers who come into touch with animals or their products, tainted water, soil, or food are at risk of contracting bacteria and parasites.

Man and Machine 

Unprotected equipment, protruding or moving parts, incorrect plant location, and a lack of safety measures are all factors that contribute to accidents. Working for prolonged amounts of time in the wrong positions can result in fatigue, backaches, and problems of the joints and muscles.

Man and Man

In contemporary occupational health, the focus is on the employees, their living and working environments, their hopes and fears, and their attitudes toward their jobs, their coworkers, and employers. It also emphasises the interpersonal relationships between employees and those in positions of authority. Workers’ domestic environments cannot be taken into account when determining their work environments. A person’s capacity for sleep may be impacted by stress, both at home and at work. Extremely long-term stress can cause major physical or mental problems that make it difficult for a person to function normally. The dynamic balance or adjustment between the industrial worker and his work environment is represented by occupational health.

Scope of Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The global industrialization that has occurred has greatly expanded the field of occupational health. This is brought on by the rise of new occupations, population growth, and workplace congestion, all of which contribute to issues with occupational health. Therefore, it is important to take the necessary precautions to protect the workers’ health. Accidents frequently occur in most businesses. Preventing these accidents, as well as promoting and maintaining the maximum level of physical, mental, and social wellness among workers in all industries, are the primary goals of occupational health.

As industries grow in size and complexity, additional occupational health issues result. The staff should receive sufficient education in order to address these issues. An effective occupational health service is built on pre-placement testing. This will assist in matching the proper guy with the correct position so that they can carry out their responsibilities effectively without endangering his health. To reduce occupational risks, workers should receive the appropriate training, both new hires and those currently employed in the field.

The society has a duty to safeguard the health of its members who work in various professions. Factory regulations were created to regulate working conditions in industry because the worker is more important than the machine he uses to protect their health and welfare. To guarantee the health and safety of employees, the employer must abide by various laws that establish particular criteria.

Principles of Occupational Health and Safety

A nation’s culture undergoes a social and economic revolution as a result of industrialization, with a focus on mass production and communal gain. Any such change will unavoidably involve dangers. To decrease these kinds of issues, some guidelines must be followed.

1. Pre – Placement Examination

At the time of employment, it is completed. It includes a thorough physical examination as well as the worker’s medical, family, occupational, and social histories. The worker may either have a job that is unsuitable for his physical and mental ability, or the favorable or negative results may be completely dismissed. The workers’ advancement will be aided by this.

2. Periodical Examination

Because many occupational disorders take months or even years to develop, periodic examinations are absolutely necessary. The type of work exposure determines the frequency and scope of periodic medical exams.

3. Medical and Health care Services

The worker should receive medical attention, as well as his family. The factory should provide appropriate first aid services.

4. Periodic Supervision

The doctor should visit frequently to assess the working conditions, including temperature, lighting, ventilation, humidity, noise, air pollution, and sanitation, all of which have an impact on employee health. The doctor should also study the various aspects of occupational physiology, such as the occurrence of fatigue from night work and shift work, among other things.

5. Maintenance and Analysis of Records

To monitor employee health and enhance preventive actions, it is necessary to maintain the worker’s health record and occupational disability record.

6. Health Education and Counselling

Health education should help the worker adjust to his new environment at work, at home, and in the community. Before the employee enters the factory, he is given it. A worker is informed of the dangers present in the field in which he works, the precautions to be taken for personal safety, and the proper use of safety equipment like masks, gloves, etc. Simple personal hygiene guidelines like washing your hands, trimming your nails, keeping your body clean, and dressing in clean clothes should be instilled in him.

7. Periodical checking of machine

To prevent mishaps, all of the machinery, tools, and apparatus utilized in the industries should be checked routinely. In order for them to function correctly, they may need to be repaired or replaced with new ones.

8. General Maintenance

It is a vital prerequisite for the abolition of workplace risks. It should be white washed at least once a year and involves general cleansing, ventilation, and lighting the walls and ceilings. To prevent accidents, the right object must be in the right location. The plant should be kept tidy both indoors and outside.

9. Harmful material

A worker who is innocuous or has a lower level of toxicity should be used in their place. Although substitution is not always practicable in certain industries, it should always be done to the utmost extent possible when it is.

10. Protective Devices

Workers should use high-quality safety equipment. They ought to be aware of the many types, as well as when and how to use, these gadgets. The owners of the factory should supply safety equipment such gas masks, ear muffs, earplugs, helmets, aprons, safety shoes, gumboots, gloves, barrier creams, screens, and goggles.

11. Environmental Monitoring

Environmental assessments should be conducted on a regular basis, especially when sampling factory air to check whether emissions of dust and gases aren’t above the allowed concentration levels. Engineers and doctors should work together to complete it.

Factors of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Diseases

Occupational health risks can be brought on by a number of reasons, depending on the worker’s line of employment. Here are some of them:

  • Physical Hazards
  • Chemical Hazards
  • Biological Hazards
  • Mechanical Hazards
  • Psycho – Social Hazards

Physical Hazards

  • Heat and cold:  Heat is a typical physical danger in industries. Burns, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, and heat cramps are all brought on by direct heat exposure. Efficiency loss and increased weariness are the indirect effects.

emitted heat. The biggest issue is radiant heat. Heat stagnation occurs in businesses with ” Hot Spots,” such as the ovens in the glass and steel sectors. High temperatures are an issue in the jute and cotton textile industries, among other mining. the Kolar Gold mines of Mysore, which are the second-deepest mine in the world (11,000 feet deep with temperatures recorded as high as 150 degrees Fahrenheit); Physical labor under such circumstances is extremely stressful and detrimental to the worker’s health and productivity. Working in the cold can lead to coetaneous vasoconstriction, which can result in chilblains, immersion foot, and frostbite.

  • Light – The risk of inadequate illumination or excessive brightness may be presented to the workers. Poor lighting can cause corneal congestion, eye strain, eye pain, headache, and eye tiredness. Glare or excessive brightness wears out the eyes.
  • Noise – In many workplaces, including manufacturing, noise is a health risk. An auditory impact is a loss of hearing, whether it be permanent or temporary. Nervousness, weariness, speech interference, decreased efficiency, and annoyance are examples of non-auditory impacts. The severity of the damage is influenced by a number of variables, including exposure time, frequency range, and intensity.
  • Vibration – The hand and arms are typically affected by vibration. Vibration exposure can also cause problems with the joints, palms, shoulders, and elbows.
  • Ultraviolet Radiation – The biggest source of ultraviolet radiation is welding. It mostly impacts the eyes, resulting in severe conjunctivitis. (Flash of the welder) The symptoms include discomfort and red eyes. There is no long-term change in how the eyes see.

Chemical Hazards

Chemistries are used in every industry. There are more and more chemical risks. There are three ways that these chemical agents work.

  1. Local action,
  2. Inhalation and
  3. Ingestion  

1. Local Action –  

Some chemicals cause dermatitis, ulcers, eczema, and even cancer by serving as main irritants. Some people have allergies that result in dermatitis. Some have systemic effects after being absorbed through the skin.

2. Inhalation  

(a) Dusts

Numerous industries, including those that work with wood, stone, textiles, foundries, and mines, produce dust. During the loading, unloading, crushing, and grinding processes, dust is released into the atmosphere. Dusts are divided into soluble and insoluble dusts, as well as inorganic and organic dusts. The inorganic dusts include abestos dust, coal, and silica mica. Examples of organic dusts are jute, cotton, and others. The slowly dissolving soluble dusts enter the circulatory system and are removed by body metabolism. The lungs almost always retain the insoluble dusts. Silicosis and anthracosis are two prevalent dust-related illnesses.

(b) Gases

Gas exposure is a frequent risk in enterprises. Simple gases that cause suffocation include oxygen and hydrogen (e.g., carbon monoxide, cyanide gas, sulphur dioxide, chlorine, and anaesthetic gases e.g., chloroform, ether etc.)

(c) Metals and other compounds

Some metals are mostly ingested through the air as dust or vapours. The adverse effects depend on both the duration and dose or concentration of the exposure.

3. Ingestion

Chemical poisoning can also result from ingesting substances like lead, mercury, arsenic, zinc, chromium, cadmium, phosphorus, etc. Small amounts of these are ingested by contaminated hands, food, etc. Only a little fraction of the substance that is consumed makes it to the general blood circulation; the majority is eliminated.

Biological Hazards

In this, parasitic agents are exposed to workers on the job. People who are among

Mechanical Hazards

The mechanical risks faced by the sector are mostly associated with machinery. Accidents with mechanical causes account for a very small fraction of cases.

Psychosocial Hazards

The worker’s inability to adjust to the psychosocial environment is the cause of this. Numerous aspects of a person’s life, including their education, cultural background, family life, social habits, and expectations from their job, might affect their ability to adjust to various work situations. Frustration, a lack of job satisfaction, instability, poor interpersonal interactions, emotional strain, etc. are a few psychosocial issues that can harm a worker’s physical and mental health. The health is impacted by two key factors:

  • Behavioral and psychological changes this includes being hostile, violent, nervous or depressed, being late, abusing alcohol or other drugs, being ill, or being away from work.
  • Psychosomatic illness this includes fast ageing, hypertension, heart disease, lethargy, headaches, and shoulder, neck, and back discomfort. Nuclear energy, electronic processes, and automation’s increasing demands are causing new psychological health issues in industry. Physical and chemical risks pale in comparison to psychological risks. Agricultural workers, wool, hair, and hides, among other animal products, are particularly susceptible to bacterial hazards.

OH & S DISEASES

Diseases that manifest during or as a result of labor.

Diseases caused by physical factors

Due to Heat. Heat hyperpyrexia, heat exhausation, heat syncope, heat cramps, burns and coal effects such as prickly heat.

Due to Cold. Trench foot, frost bite. chilblains.

Due to light. Occupational cataract.
Due to pressure. Caisson disease, air ambolism, blast (explosion).

Due to noise. Occupational deafness.

Due to Radiation. Cancer, leukaemia, aplastic anaemia. Due to mechanical factors. Injuries, accidents.

Due to electricity. Burns.

Diseases caused by chemical factors

Due to Gases. These cause gas poisoning.

Due to Dusts.

Inorganic Dusts causes

Coal dust – Anthracosis

Silica – Silicosis

Asbestos – Asbestosis, Lung cancer   

Iron – Siderosis

Organic (Vegetable) Dusts

Cane fibre – Bagassosis
Cotton dust – Byssionosis

Tobacco – Tobacossis

Grain Dust- Farmer’s lung

Due to Metals and their compounds – Toxic hazards from lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, chromium etc.

Due to chemicals – Acids, Alkalies. Pesticides.

Diseases caused by Biological Factors

Brucellosis, anthrax, actnomycosis, hydatidsis, tetanus, fungal infections etc.

Occupational Cancers. Cancer of skin, lungs, bladder.

Occupational Dermatosis. Dermatitis eczema. 

Diseases caused by Psychological Factors Industrial neurosis, hypertension, peptic ulcer etc.

FAQs on Occupational Health and Safety Management System

Q: What is an Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS)?

A: An OHSMS is a management system designed to manage and improve occupational health and safety within an organization. It includes policies, procedures, and practices that aim to identify, assess, and control hazards and risks in the workplace.

Q: Why is an OHSMS important?

A: An OHSMS is important for several reasons. It helps organizations to comply with legal and regulatory requirements related to occupational health and safety. It also helps to improve the working conditions for employees, reduce the risk of accidents and injuries, and enhance productivity and overall business performance.

Q: What are the key components of an OHSMS?

A: The key components of an OHSMS include the development of policies and procedures related to health and safety, hazard identification and risk assessment, implementation of control measures to manage identified hazards, training and communication programs for employees, monitoring and evaluation of the system’s performance, and continuous improvement.

Q: How can an organization implement an OHSMS?

A: An organization can implement an OHSMS by following a structured approach, such as the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. This involves establishing the system, implementing policies and procedures, monitoring and evaluating performance, and making improvements based on the results.

Q: What are some benefits of implementing an OHSMS?

A: Some benefits of implementing an OHSMS include reducing the risk of accidents and injuries in the workplace, improving the health and safety of employees, reducing absenteeism and staff turnover, enhancing the reputation of the organization, and improving business performance.

Q: What is ISO 45001?

A: ISO 45001 is an international standard for occupational health and safety management systems. It provides a framework for organizations to manage and improve their occupational health and safety performance and is based on the PDCA cycle.

Q: What is the role of employees in an OHSMS?

A: Employees play a critical role in an OHSMS. They need to follow the policies and procedures related to health and safety, report hazards and risks, participate in training and communication programs, and take an active role in identifying and addressing health and safety issues in the workplace.

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